The C++ programming language is a subset of the C programming language. C++ was created as an expansion of the C programming language. C++ enables inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, encapsulation, and other object-oriented programming capabilities in addition to the procedural language characteristics derived from C. We’ll go through some of the key distinctions between C andC++ in this tutorial.
C is a procedural language, which means that the program is around functions. The problem has been down to several functions. The program’s major focus is on functions or methods to do things in a way C++, on the other hand, is a computer language that focuses on object-oriented programming. The problem’s data is the major focus here, and the classes are created around it. Functions work on data and are inextricably linked to it.
What is C?
C is a systems programming language because it is a procedural programming language that works at the lowest level of abstraction. It’s lightweight, compiled, and has manual memory management.
The performance of the C programming language is its strength, and it can be in to code for a wide range of systems. As a result, practically anything can be coded using the computer language.
Though we now have specialised and diverse programming languages to choose from, C was a fantastic creation in its infancy and early years. During its formative years, its adaptability was unrivalled.
What is C++?
C++, created by Bjarne Stroustrup, originally appeared in 1985 and was hailed as the finest prodigy of the C programming language. In 1979, while working at Bell Labs, Bjarne started working on the programming language. He aimed to create a C extension that is more efficient and flexible than the C programming language. Object-oriented programming is supported by C++. It has a low abstraction level and necessitates manual memory management. It has the ability to create apps for a variety of platforms.
C++ is a programming language that offers nearly everything that C does, but in a more efficient manner. C++ has influenced and continues to impact a variety of high-level programming languages, including C# and Java, just like its original inspiration, the C programming language.
Difference between C and C++
C andC++ have are for a variety of development objectives, including game development, database system software, operating systems, GUI-based applications, and much more.
C is a structured, general-purpose programming language that was created for system development work, i.e. programmes that make up operating systems. Because of its versatility, speed, and simplicity, it quickly became popular for a variety of application development projects.
You must first understand what object-oriented programming is in order to completely comprehend the distinctions between C and C++. In terms of programming, the phrase “object-oriented” was coined at MIT in the late 1950s or early 1960s.
The concept of “objects” is used in object-oriented programming (or OOP). A “class,” or a program-code-template, is an instance of an object. Data or code operations can make up a class (also known as methods).
The most notable distinction between the two is that the original C programming language is not object-oriented. C is a procedural programming language, whereas C++ is a hybrid language that combines procedural and object-oriented programming.
For embedded devices and system-level code, C is a good choice. C++, on the other hand, is a popular programming language for gaming, networking, and server-side applications. It’s also a fantastic tool for creating device drivers. C++’s power comes from its speed and performance. Though C has these capabilities as well, C++ goes a step farther.
C uses a top-down strategy since it is a procedure-oriented (structure-oriented) programming language. It starts with a high-level design and progresses to a low-level design.
The bottom-up strategy, in contrast to the top-down approach, begins with the low-level design and ends with the high-level design. The code for modules is in the bottom-up technique, and these modules are then with the main() function. Both methodologies are in the development of software, but not in the execution of programs. In today’s environment, software design incorporates both methodologies to achieve the best of both worlds.
Encapsulation is not in the C programming language because data and functions are in separate entities. The C++ code encapsulates data and methods in an object, allowing for encapsulation and, as a result, information hiding.
Another significant difference between C andC++ programming languages is data security. Data is not as secure with the C programming language.
C++ can hide variables in a class while merely providing a functional interface because it is an object-oriented programming language. Modifiers are to class members to prevent external users from accessing the data.
In the C programming language, such a concept does not exist. As a result, all variables are exposing, making them vulnerable to access by malicious code.
In C, declaring enumerations is feasible. The defined enumeration constants, on the other hand, are of integer type. In this way, declaring an enumeration is equivalent to declaring a set of integer constants. Furthermore, there is no type of safety.
An enumeration is a distinct type in the C++ computer language. This means that unless an explicit conversion, it is impossible to give an integer value to an enumeration type variable.
Nonetheless, it is possible to assign an enumeration type value to an integer type variable. This is due to the fact that enumeration types allow for implicit conversion via integral promotion. This is easily detectable by a static checker.
Polymorphism is an important element of object-oriented programming. As a result, C++ supports it. Polymorphism in C++ simply means that depending on the type of the object that invokes the function, a call to a member function will result in the execution of a different function.
Polymorphism is most common in C++ when there is a hierarchy of classes that are related by inheritance.
In C, unlike C++, there is no built-in support for polymorphism. However, some design patterns, such as function pointers, can serve as a reasonable substitute for dynamic dispatch.
The C programming language has a procedural approach to programming, which means it does not recognise classes or objects. C++, on the other hand, is a computer language that allows for multi-paradigm programming.
Because C++ is a multi-paradigm programming language, it can support both procedural and object-oriented programming methods. Despite being entirely object-oriented, C++ is a hybrid programming language since it supports procedural programming.
C++’s object-oriented nature means that it improves both productivity and code organisation. When it comes to designing complicated applications, both traits are necessary. C++ is a top choice for developing server-side software and speedy apps due to its object-oriented design.
The letter C emphasises the stages or techniques used to solve a specific problem. C++, on the other hand, focuses heavily on objects. This is due to the fact that it is more abstract than the C programming language.
Virtual and Friend Functions
A virtual function is a member function that is declared within a base class but is overridden by a derived class. Virtual functions are mostly used to achieve runtime polymorphism. The virtual keyword is used to make any function virtual.
A class’s friend function is one that is defined outside of the class’s scope but has access to all of the class’s private and protected members. Friend function prototypes appear in the class specification, but they are not member functions.
Let’s recap what C and C++ are before we go into the technical aspects. C is, without a doubt, the most extensively used programming language. Dennis Ritchie worked at AT&T Bell Labs between 1969 and 1973, developing C. Why is C so important?
Many computer science gurus recommend learning C initially if you’ve never learned to programme before. Not only is C a simpler language with fewer options than its descendants, but it also inspires many new languages with its syntax and concepts. That means that after studying C, you’ll have an easier time understanding other languages.
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Many programmers and technology enthusiasts believed that languages like C and C++ will have little impact in this decade. C andC++, on the other hand, remain intriguing career paths due to their development features and vast range of applications. Other languages are emerging with newer features and functionalities, but they all serve different objectives. You can, however, master the programming languages that interest you without worrying about career paths.
The distinctions between C andC++ programming languages are now complete. Both of them are among the most popular ways to make a career as a programmer. As a result, now is an excellent moment to brush up on your C and C++ skills, or to begin building them if you haven’t done so already.
Are there any further distinctions between C andC++ that we overlooked? Is there something in the article that is factually incorrect? Use the dedicated comment box below to express your thoughts.