What are the Hydraulic System Components?

Hydraulic system components include the hydraulic reservoir, the Direction control valve, and the accumulator. Understanding the role and function of these components is essential for proper operation. The hydraulic reservoir must contain hydraulic fluid at all times. Fluid flows from the reservoir into the system to perform the actuations required. As the volume of hydraulic fluid changes due to changes in temperature, the hydraulic reservoir acts as an overflow during hot operation. It also stores excess fluid to prevent leaks and system shutdowns.

Inline reservoirs

The hydraulic system comprises several components, including a reservoir. This part of the hydraulic system stores fluid for the use of a pump. The fluid then flows through the system, from the reservoir to the pump, and then back to the reservoir. The purpose of the reservoir is twofold: to replenish the fluid lost due to leakage, and to act as an overflow basin in case the fluid level rises to an excessive level. The volume of the fluid increases due to piston displacement, thermal expansion, and accumulator enlargement.

Inline reservoirs can contain filters to remove debris or other particles from the fluid. Non-pressurized reservoirs can also feature a strainer, which prevents foreign objects from entering the reservoir during servicing. In addition, non-pressurized reservoirs feature visual gauges to indicate the amount of fluid. These gauges may be a glass tube or float type rod visible through a dome.

The most critical hydraulic component is the pressure relief valve, which limits the pressure in the system to a certain level. If the system pressure rises beyond this limit, the valve opens, diverting fluid back to the reservoir. The simplest type of relief valve consists of a poppet that is held in the seat by a spring force. When system pressure exceeds a specified level, the poppet lifts and the fluid exits through an orifice.

The hydraulic system contains a series of fluid components. The piston, which is movable, encases a piston inside a cylindrical reservoir. When the pump output pressure is applied to it, this force acts on the smaller piston, which moves the larger piston against the reservoir fluid. Because the piston is small, the force generated by the small piston is sufficient to provide head pressure in high-altitude operation.

Direction control valve

A directional control valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of liquid or gas through a hydraulic system. There are different types of directional valves for different purposes. Another type of directional valve is the hydraulic solenoid valve, which is a mechanical device that alters the flow of a liquid by means of a solenoid.

A hydraulic solenoid valve has two separate spools – one that blocks flow and the other that allows it to pass through. Both types of valves use solenoids to control their operation. A hydraulic solenoid valve consists of a spool with grooves and a land at one end. The grooves allow fluid to pass through the valve.

The hydraulic fluid is not very intelligent, and it is capable of moving mountains.It will pick the shortest path or one with the least amount of resistance. Using a directional control valve allows the operator to direct the flow of fluid and to reduce the effects of this behavior. This is the reason why directional control valves are so important to hydraulics.

Spherical type accumulator

A spherical type accumulator consists of two halves that are attached to one another through welding or fastening. The accumulator has ports on either end for connecting pressurized hydraulic system components or a gas servicing valve. There is a synthetic rubber diaphragm that separates the two chambers. The spherical type accumulator’s fluid pressure port has a screen that keeps the diaphragm from protruding.

Accumulators help prevent this from happening by compensating for leakage and thermal expansion and contraction. These devices are critical to a hydraulic system. The accumulator housing is hollow and includes a flange-like outer section.The ball valve block are integral parts of the accumulator housing.

Another type of accumulator is a piston-type hydro-pneumatic accumulator. These types of accumulators can handle high volumes and pressures. However, they are not recommended for use in hydraulic systems with flammable fluids as the flammable fluid will ignite and cause excessive heat. In these cases, safety fluids are typically used. There are other advantages of a piston-type accumulator.

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Nonpressurized reservoirs

Pressurized reservoirs have air pressure regulators, which prevent atmospheric air from affecting fluid flow into the pump. Typically, these reservoirs are cylindrical in shape.


Filters and strainers remove suspended particles from fluids. In the case of a hydraulic system, large particles can cause extensive damage, which is why strainers are essential. In addition to preventing large particles from entering the system, these devices can also help extend the drain intervals. However, strainers and filters are not directly protective of hydraulic components. Consequently, they generally require nearby external power sources.

Suction strainers prevent trash from entering the hydraulic reservoir. However, these types of filters can also become clogged with grease. Grease in the hydraulic fluid will disintegrate, and this will reduce its effectiveness. Similarly, steel mesh particles in the hydraulic fluid can cause catastrophic damage. For this reason, it is important to use suction strainers.

Although strainers are an important component of hydraulic systems, you may wonder why you should use them. The fact is, they prevent large objects from entering the pump intake. Modern hydraulic systems have evolved to make them more efficient and less likely to become clogged. A well-maintained hydraulic system is less likely to require strainers, but proper maintenance can prevent major damage and save you a lot of money.

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